classical papers


[2] van Alphen GWHM: On emmetropia and ametropia. Ophthalmologica (Suppl) 1961;142:1-92.

[3] Medina A. El Origen de las Ametropías: ¿Qué Es Emetropía? Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol. 1980;40:156-161.

[4] Medina A. A model for emmetropization. The effect of corrective lenses. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1987, 65(5): 565-571.

[5] Wiesel TN, Raviola E. Myopia and eye enlargement after neonatal lid fusion in monkeys. Nature 1977;266:66-77.

[6] Medina A and Greene PR. Progressive Myopia and Lid Suture Myopia are explained by the Same Feedback Process: a Mathematical Model of Myopia. International Journal Nature Sci. 2015; 1(6): pii: e121

[7] Medina A. A model for emmetropization: predicting the progression of ametropia. Ophthalmologica. 1987;194(2-3):133-139.

[8] Medina A. Prevention of myopia by partial correction of hyperopia: a twins study. Int Ophthalmol. 2018;38: 577–583.

[9] Fariza-Guttman E and Medina A, Ophthalmic lenses induce refractive changes in primates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32 (Suppl):1201.

[11] Wallman J, Turkel J Trachtman J. Extreme myopia produced by modest change in early visual experience. Science 1978;201: 1249-1251

[16] Straub M. Über die Atiologie der Brechungsanomalien des Auges und den Ursprung der Emmetropie. Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Ophthalmologie. 1909;70(1), 130-199.

[17] Zeeman, W. P. C.: Linsenmessungen und Emmetropisation. Graefes Arch. klin. exp. Ophthal. 1911;78: 93-128 ()

[18] Wibaut, F.: Uber die Emmetropisation und den Ursprung der spharischen Refraktionsanomalien. Graefes Arch. klin. exp. Ophthal. 1925;116: 596-612.

[19] Steiger A. Die Entstehung der spharischen Refraktionen des menschlichen Auges. Karger: Berlin, 1913.

[21] Troilo D Neonatal Eye Growth And Emmetropisation a Litrrature Review. Eye. 1992;6:154-160

[22] Sorsby, A.; Sheridan, M.; Leary, G. A.; Benjamin, B.: Vision, visual acuity, and ocular refraction of young men: Findings in a sample of 1,033 subjects. Br Med J. 1960; 7;1(5183):1394-1398.

[25] Slataper FJ. Age norms of refraction and vision. Arch Ophthalmol. 1950;43:466-81.

[29] Applied optics and optical design, Part 1 p 71 Alexander Eugen Conrady Dover Publications, 1957 New York.

[30] Medina A and Fariza E. Emmetropization as a first-order feedback system. Vision Res. 1993;33(1);21-26.

[31] French AN. Comparison of Refraction and Ocular Biometry in European Caucasian Children Living in Northern Ireland and Sydney, Australia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.2012;53:4021–403

[33] Medina A. The progression of corrected myopia. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;253(8);1273-1277.

[34] Fernández-Montero A et al. The impact of computer use in myopia progression: A cohort study in Spain. Preventive Medicine. 2015;71 67–71.

[35] Oakley KH, Young FA. Bifocal control of myopia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1975;52:758–764.

[37] Cheng D, Woo GC, Drobe B, Schmid KL  Effect of bifocal and prismatic bifocal spectacles on myopia progression in children: three-year results of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(3):258–264. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.7623

[39] Adler D, Millodot M. The possible effect of undercorrection on myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. 2006;89:315–321.

[40] Vasudevan B, Esposito C, Peterson C, Coronado C, Ciuffreda KJ. Under-correction of human myopia - Is it myopigenic?: A retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data. J Optom. 2014;7:147– 152. doi:10.1016/j.optom.2013.12.007.

[41] Li SY, Li SM, Zhou YH, Liu LR, Li H, Kang MT, Zhan SY, Wang N, Millodot M. Effect of undercorrection on myopia progression in 12-year-old children. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;253(8):1363-8. doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3053-8.

[42] Medina A. Detecting the effect of under-correcting myopia Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016;254:409–410 doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3111-2.

[44] Sun YY et al. Effect of uncorrection versus full correction on myopia progression in 12-year-old children. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2017, 255(1):189. doi: 10.1007/s00417-016-3529-1.

[45] Phillips J. Monovision slows juvenile myopia progression unilaterally. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:1196–1200. doi:10.1136/bjo.2004064212.

[46] Greene PR, Brown OS, Medina AP, & Graupner HB. Emmetropia Approach Dynamics With Diurnal Dual-Phase Cycling. Vision Research. 1996;36(15):2249-2251.

[47] Ong E, Grice K, Held R, Thorn F, Gwiazda J. Effects of spectacle intervention on the progression of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci 1999;76:363–369.

[49] R M Ingram, L E Gill, T W Lambert Effect of spectacles on changes of spherical hypermetropia in infants who did, and did not, have strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:324–326.

[50] GossDA. Linearity of refractive change in childhood myopia progression. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987;64:775–780.

[52] Greene PR and Medina A. Juvenile Myopia. Predicting the Progression Rate. M J Opht. 2017;2(1):012.

[54] Sawada A, Tomidokoro A, Araie M, Iwase A, Yamamoto T. Tajimi Study Group. Refractive errors in an elderly Japanese population: the Tajimi study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:363–370.

[55] Mark HH. Emmetropisation: physical aspects of a statistical phenomenon. Ann OphthalmoI. 1972;4:39-401

[60] Deng L Gwiazda J Thorn F. Children's refractions and visual activities in the school year and summer. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:406–413.

[65[74] Lu B Congdon N Liu X Associations between near work, outdoor activity, and myopia among adolescent students in rural China: the Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study report no. 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:769–775.

[74] Chua WH et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2285–91.

[75] Luu CD et al. Multifocal electroretinogram in children on atropine treatment for myopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(2):151–3.

[76] Song YY et al. Atropine in ameliorating the progression of myopia in children with mild to moderate myopia: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27(4):361–8.

[77] Chia A et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: safety and efficacy of 0.5 %, 0.1 %, and 0.01 % doses (atropine for the treatment of myopia 2). Ophthalmology. 2012;119(2):347–54.

[78] Chia A, et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: changes after stopping atropine 0.01 %, 0.1 % and 0.5 %. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(2):451–7.

[81] Holden, BA et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(5):1036–1042. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006

[83] Morgan IG, French AN, Rose KA Intense schooling linked to myopia. BMJ. 2018;361:k2248.